3.6 Cross section Ameland/Fryslân
1. Map of the cross- section (download
In the north of the cross-section,
there is a part of the Wadden Island Ameland which is characterized by
dunes, dune reclamations and polders. South of the island is the Wadden Sea,
a very special piece of landscape with his wide open sky and a view on the
mainland with the seawall and the towers of the churches, each with a
On the mainland, outside the seawall and still under influence of the sea
there is a big area of silts and marshlands on the higher parts with
scattered ring dyke pools. The landscape of the mainland behind the sea wall
is characterized by open spaces with arable land in Het Bildt and grassland
in the south. The different kinds of villages are: dike villages (Vrouwenparochie),
sluice villages (Oude Bildtzijl) and dwelling mounds (Beetgum). In order to
protect the land from forces of the sea, dykes like the Oude Bildtdijk,
Nieuwe Bildtdijk and Skredijk were built. The dykes also tell the story of
land reclamation in former times.
Open landscape Nabij Marssum OoievaarDwelling mound Deinum
Dike village Vrouwenparochie Sluice village Oude Bildtzijl
3. Spatial development: Sea defence
The question of who is responsible for the sea defence is important. What
kind of development is allowed behind the sea defence? The responsible
government decides about new developments. Decisions by the national states
are primarily based on protection, whereas for example municipalities focus
more on chances for developments.
Integrated coastal management (ICZM)
approach for a sustainable and balanced development of the region will cover
also coastal protection requirements.
Uncertain and unclear responsibilities lead to incidental planning and sometimes a lack of
investment with effects on landscape and heritage.
Wadden Sea land reclamation Sea dyke
4. Spatial development: Settlements
On the island, there is a policy of
maintaining settlements in their old setting. Requests for new building
sites in rural areas were made. Ecological values obstruct new building
activities in this part. Which are the best locations for small scale
building sites on the island?
On the mainland new building sites are situated near villages, but often not
in line with a certain regional identity. In this case the question is; what
is the regional identity of buildings and building sites?
Promoting the cultural values and creating a better awareness among decision
makers, planners and architects in their business. Stimulate the use of that
knowledge and awareness in designing new sties and buildings.
New extention Beetgum Houses in Engelum
Even small scale building activities
can wipe away the cultural history and damage the area-specific landscape.
5. Spatial development : Agriculture
There is a conflict between agriculture, nature and landscape on the island.
Intensifying and increasing productivity is hardly possible because of
natural and logistic restrictions. The
number of farms is decreasing and agriculture seems to be no longer
Environmental legislation makes it even harder to continue profitable
On the mainland, agriculture is still a rather strong economic basis. Scale
enlargement is still going on with it’s effects on landscape.
On the island, there are possibilities for a combination of agriculture,
tourism and recreation.
On the mainland the agricultural sector could carry on managing the
landscape in a sustainable way. Scale enlargement and other chances have to
fit in the cultural landscape.
Scale enlargement of farmland and farm buildings can have negative effects
on landscape and cultural heritage when it's done in the wrong way.
Variety in landscape near Berlikumerwijd molen
Arable land, Berlikum
Arable land, Skredijk
6. Spatial development: Horticulture
In the cross section, an area of 450 hectare must be found for the
construction of new green houses.
The discussion of the disputed development of horticulture will contribute to an awareness of the landscape
and cultural heritage being an ultimate
challenge in exercising Protection (of a very valuable and vulnerable
landscape) by Development (green houses as new “member” of the landscape).
Decreasing openness of the area and
disappearing darkness are seen as threats. Glittering glass walls can break the scale and
texture of the landscape.
Green houses in Berlikum
7. Spatial development: Nature
The Wadden Sea area is managed by national and international guidelines (Wadden
Sea Plan)and national legislation.
The situation for protection of the mainland is different, more fragmentized.
Along the coast of the mainland, there is one of the largest land
reclamation areas of the entire Wadden Sea area. It is partly man made land (heritage) with
important natural values.
Besides nature conservation objectives, there is an opportunity to protect the cultural
values of land reclamation. Continuing
land reclamation could support the maintenance of the cultural values, could
partly benefit nature conservation and development and could be a measure of
By giving back land to nature, some cultural values can disappear easily.
Sea dyke, Poldijk Land reclamation near Zwarte Haan
8. Spatial development: Tourism
On the island, there is a large number of tourists. They concentrate in the dune areas and small
villages because of the attractiveness. The other parts, the polders, can
offer space and attractiveness by their
landscape and heritage as well and reduce the pressure on dune areas and
On the mainland, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of
landscape and cultural heritage for the development of tourism.
Increase the economic importance of
tourism by the combination of farming and tourism/recreation, sometimes by
re-use of empty historical buildings (old farmhouses).
Look for arrangements in visiting the island and the main land.
New accommodations for tourists can conflict with the regional identity.
Ferry to Ameland
Restaurant the Zwarte Haan
9. Spatial development: Economics
An economic development is shown by the
enlargement of business parks, for example near Sint Jacobiparochie and the
new road between Leeuwarden and Marssum, the so called Noord-west Tangent.
Specific (economic) issues are the windmills. The provincial policy for
windmills says that on the island windmills are not allowed to be built. On
the mainland they are allowed only on selected locations, like
Nijkerkerpolder. There is a policy of “up scaling”, 10 new = 5 old removed.
A stronger economy can sometimes contribute to more investments in landscape and cultural
Strong points to stress: clean, space,
identity (landscape and cultural history).
With existing rules and legislation, it can sometimes be difficult to develop
good sites. A new site for ‘whatever’
needs tailor-made solutions and spatial design, which not always fit into