Cultural Entities 


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1. Overview




River Weser, Geest border, neighbouring entities Land Stadland, Friesland, Oldenburg, Delmenhorst


Approx. 580 km²

Location - map:

Tidal river marsh of Lower Saxony, Germany

Origin of name:

May derive from the word “Gestade“, a reference to the inhabitants of the coastal strip west of the Weser.

Relationship/similarities with other cultural entities:

River marshes of Osterstade, Stadland, Land Würden, peatland areas, mainly pasture economy, harbour economy, shipping.

Characteristic elements and ensembles:

Farm houses, linear settlements, river marsh, peatlands, pasture, trading.

2. Geology and geography

2.1 General
Stedingen or the Stedingerland lies in the southern part of today’s district of Wesermarsch between Brake in the north and Schönemoor in the south; the Weser forms the eastern boundary and the Geest of Oldenburg the western. The region is divided by the Hunte into the northern Niederstedingen and the southern Oberstedingen. The territory of the historic landscape of Stedingen used to be bigger than today and comprised areas east of the Weser (Osterstade).
The natural spatial arrangement of the landscape is characterised by very fertile river marshes, especially of the Weser and Hunte, as well as by the mostly cultivated fens and raised bogs towards the Geest border. One of the most widespread fens of Stedingen is the Moorriem which reaches a thickness of several metres. The higher reaches of the Stedingerlands lie roughly at sea level. Only near Pfahlhausen in the south does the Geest rises above the Weser marsh. It is typical of landscapes which originated during the post-glacial period, in that it has a structure of raised river banks and lower Sietland, the names of Leuchterseite and Brokseite are also used for this area.
The origin of the name Stedingen is unclear, it possibly derives from the word “Gestade“ and thus refers to the inhabitants of the coastal strip west of the Weser.

2.2 Present landscape
The present Stedingerland lies between the Ochtum, Weser and Hunte, several small rivers like the Berne, Hörspe and Ollen run through it and on two sides it is enclosed by the Geest. It comprises the present communities of Berne and Lemwerder. Since the historic landscape of Stedingen used to be bigger, the communities of Brake (Unterweser), Elsfleth and Ovelgönne also have to be taken into account.
Along the dyked river Weser small and medium-sized settlements have developed. Lemwerder and Elsfleth on the Hunte mouth and Brake possess port facilities which influence the life, culture and economy of the region. Brake as a Middle Order Centre, with more than 16000 inhabitants is the county town of the district of Wesermarsch, and the seat of many government agencies. Communities like Berne or Ovelgönne have a much lower population density. The communities’ territories, which consist mostly of marsh land, are used mainly as pasture. The community of Ovelgönne in the north of Stedingen has managed to preserve its historic character and is almost completely free of industry. Typical of its landscape are the pastures crossed by drainage ditches, these are a characteristic feature of the Wesermarsch as well as cultivated fen areas. Remnant peatlands, like that in Rüdershausen, have been preserved in parts. The land is characterised by long narrow field strips and linear settlements.

3. Landscape and settlement history 

3.1 Prehistoric and Medieval Times
The large-scale investigation of the North Sea tidal flats is well advanced, thanks to the efforts made by the Institute for Historic Coastal Research and by communal, district and county archaeologists. As a comparatively young geological landscape the Elbe-Weser and Weser-Ems regions are characterised by quaternary deposits.
There is only indirect archaeological evidence for the introduction of cultivation methodologies to the Stedingen. However, considering the wider archaeological context, it can be assumed that Stedingen was part of more widespread prehistoric and early historic developments. At the beginning of the post glacial period today’s North Sea coast was still dry land and the coast itself lay near the present Dogger Bank, it can be surmised that the river marshes were frequented by Mesolithic hunters and gatherers.

The oldest archaeological finds to date were dredged out of the Weser. They largely consist of animal bones but antler picks which date to the Middle Stone Age (Mesolithic) are also represented.
Two stone tools, which were also dredged from the Weser between Elsfleth and Brake, date to the earliest Late Stone Age (Neolithic). They are associated with the so-called Linear Band Culture and indicate cultural contacts to this early foreign farming culture.

Various artefacts from later periods have been found along the western bank of the Weser or in the Weser itself. They include flint and other stone axes from the earliest farming culture of North Germany, the Funnel Beaker Culture, and a flint dagger from the late Neolithic. Important finds in this context are the objects from the Funnel Beaker Culture from the shores of the Hunte at the Gellener dyke near Moorriem in the parish of Elsfleth. Here pottery and flint tools have been found during earthworks with an excavator at a depth of 0.5 m below sea level on a sandy hill below the clay. They are interpreted as settlement remains. Unfortunately this site was completely destroyed. However, there might be further sites from this period along the Hunte, which could be revealed during construction works. In that case modern excavation techniques might provide important information about the early settlement in the river marsh areas.

From the Bronze Age there is a sword found in the Blömer, a side branch of the Weser near Elsfleth. Near Lemwerder a bronze chisel and dagger were retrieved from the Weser. A burial site at Berne dates back to the Middle Bronze Age. Pottery, a bronze kettle and a needle were found deep below clay deposits. The first intensive colonisation of the river marsh can only be proven for the late Bronze Age. Urn finds from the urban area of Braker, as well as pottery sherds from Huntebrück-Wührden and below the Aegidius church in Berne suggest this. The ground-level settlement Huntebrück-Wührden, community of Elsfleth, apparently continued to exist until the centuries immediately after Christ. Even though the Weser marsh can be seen as an area unfavourable to settlement with its wide bogs which separate the river marsh from the Geest areas of the Ammerland or Oldenburg, there is, apart from the rivers, other evidence for inter-communication across this space. A boardwalk, dated to the 8th century BC by dendrochronology, lead from Eckfleth, town of Elsfleth, over the bog of Ipwege towards the west. From the south two other boardwalks, dating from the third to second centuries BC, lead over the Wittemoor to Holler moor in a northerly direction. As in all the North German marsh areas, intensive cultivation of the river marsh took place around the time of the birth of Christ, this appears to have ceased in the 5th century AD. Many settlements remained ground-level settlements, with only a few reconstructed as dwelling mounds. One such exception is the settlement which has been found beneath the church of Berne. It was raised into a dwelling mound around the birth of Christ. Another example is that of the dwelling mound of Hogenkamp south of Elsfleth. Since 1874 finds have been made and small excavations carried out on this site. The dwelling mound so far dates to the 4th/5th century AD. Some finds of national importance date to the post-Christian centuries of the Roman Iron Age. In a peat-bog near Strückhausen, south-west of the town of Brake, 28 silver-beaded bronze brooches were found during peat cutting, together with the remains of fabric and leather. They date into the second half of the third century BC and are interpreted as a trader’s or craftsman’s deposit. Along the Weser some Roman artefacts have been found, usually coins or pottery from between the 2nd and the 5th centuries AD. In this context some bones with rune cuttings should be mentioned, these were discovered in 1928 during the Weser excavation near Brake. Around 400 AD a very detailed Roman ship was engraved by a Teuton into one of these bones. During the 4th/5th century settlement decline began. There is only a little archaeological evidence from the now Saxon population, e.g. pottery and the unique find of a lid with a handle in the shape of a pig from a site near Altenesch.

It was not until the High Middle Ages that large-scale cultivation of the Stedinger Land take place. A few years ago a sounding on a farm dwelling mound in Bardewisch, community of Lemwerder, was undertaken. The core dwelling mound had been erected during High Middle Ages and can be seen as an example for the land-taking process of that period. When Stedingen fell to Bishop Adalbert of Bremen in 1063, because of his guardianship of Heinrich IV, he started to systematically colonise the land with farmers from the neighbouring Geest as well as with Dutch Frisians who were to turn the so far rather poor soils into fertile farmland. During this time the systematic cultivation of the peatbogs began, a process which is historically well documented. The cultivation process was based on drainage and the building of dams and dykes. The settlers built their farms in rows with the fields reaching into the bog in long thin stripes. Settlements sited along the peatbog border are characteristic of this phases of cultivation, e.g. like those at Moorriem. Here one of these linear settlements has preserved over a length of over 15 km. Further settlements of this kind can be found at Neuenhuntorf, Oldenbrok-Mittelort, Harrierwurp and Sandfeld. They are typified by raised settlement platforms where the peat base rises from the surrounding lowered ground level. The investigation of these places by settlement archaeology is still in its infancy.
The cultivation of the wetland towards the Weser was undertaken in the mid-12th century by dyking and drainage programs. As in other regions of North Germany, the landscape is crossed by a dense right-angled network of drainage ditches.
The medieval history of Stedingen during the 12th and 13th century is characterised by conflicts between the people of Stedingen and the authorities, they were even accused of heresy. Therefore the Bishop declared the resulting wars to be crusades. During the second “crusade” the people of Stedingen suffered complete defeat in 1234 at Altenesch. The victors split up the land. The largest parts fell to the Archbishop of Bremen and the Counts of Oldenburg. But they usually left the land to farmed by the defeated or new colonists on terms of free tenancy (Meierrecht). At the site of the battle a monument was erected in 1834 (Stedingsehre).
One of the most notable buildings of Stedingen is the St. Ägidius church in Berne, which is also called “Stedinger Dom“. It was built towards the end of the 12th century on an already existing dwelling mound. The first building was erected of imported Porta sandstone from the Weser mountain range. The rather plain church building was re-built into a three-aisled church of Westphalian style after the Stedinger wars. After the conquest of the Stedingerland the Counts of Oldenburg built a burgh, or a “Motte“, next to the church, which was under the authority of the Archbishop of Bremen. It is first mentioned in a document from 1242. Other early church buildings are those of Bardewisch with its late-gothic frescoes, Altenesch, Warfleth, Neuenhuntorf, Elsfleth, Bardenfleth or Strückhausen.

3.2 Early Modern Times
The late Middle Ages and early Modern Times were the time of Oldenburg sovereignty of the area. After the death of Graf Anton Günther in 1667 the King of Denmark was the owner of the County of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst till 1773 and therefore of Stedingen as well. His reign was marked by the financial exploitation of the region, which caused the dykes to fall into neglect. The Christmas flood of 1717 was disastrous for the whole Wesermarsch. In Stedingen, however, the flood damages were remedied within one year. In the 19th century the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg initialised an administrative reorganisation and the establishment of new administrative bodies. Consequently, the Wesermarsch experienced an economic upturn. The harbour of Brake flourished prior to the foundation of Bremerhaven and it developed so well that Brake received its own town charter in 1879. Elsfleth with its port and dockyards was of even greater importance. Berne and Ovelgönne preserved their rural structures. New administrative structures in 1879, 1933 and 1948 caused repeated changes until in the 1970s the present community structure was introduced.

3.3 Modern Times
The medieval historic landscape of Stedingen today comprises the communities of Lemwerder, Berne, Elsfleth, Brake and Ovelgönne. From an economic and historic point of view certain principles in the settlement processes can be seen. First there is the marked difference between the more densely settled area along the Weser banks and the sparsely populated Siet and peat lands. The development of towns and villages along the Weser led to a concentration of the population in these areas.
The dykes, both old and modern, are important as a location for settlement, along their courses linear settlements developed. Then there are the fen settlements which follow the original course of the fen borders and fen roads. The communities of Lemwerder and Berne serve as examples for this type of settlement. The Ochtum-Weser dyke stretches all the way to the Hunte mouth and has an almost unbroken line of settlements with sporadic conglomerations along it. Near Altenesch the Ollen branches off, accompanied by an ancient dike line, along which settlements concentrate. To the south-west of Berne a road with an irregular course runs along the edge of the fen with only sporadic settlements of small dwelling places. There are no settlement alignments on either side of the Hunte dykes since the Hunte never played any significant role in encouraging settlement.
Between those lines of settlements there are wide empty grassland plains. Only in the centres of the fens are there scattered villages with single farmsteads and Kötereien (cottages). In the fieldscape a difference can be seen between the irregular block-shaped fields on the shore banks and the long narrow field strips characteristic of the fens.

In the community of Berne the marsh soils predominate: towards the south they change into peat marsh and peat. Accordingly pasture is the main form of land use, just as in Lemwerder. Nevertheless, the agricultural structures are disintegrating. The industry in Lemwerder with its dockyards and aircraft maintenance plant is also regressive and a change is already noticeable. The community of Ovelgönne consists of peat marsh with a high proportion of grassland. Here dairy farming is still the most important economic factor. The town of Elsfleth on the Hunte mouth with the former community of Morriem is also characterised by a prevailing pasture economy. The agricultural economy of Morriem comprises 84% dairy farming and only 3% tillage. The economic situation of the town of Brake has been largely dominated by its location by the Weser and its harbour.

4. Modern development and planning

The economy of the Stedingerland is traditionally based on animal husbandry. Only in the Weser ports of Brake and Elsfleth have dockyards and harbour industry developed; in the region of Lemwerder an aerospace industry has established. The Federal Office for Civil Engineering and Regional Planning in its regional planning report of 2005 classes the district Wesermarsh, and thus Stehdingen, amongst the areas in which the population and employment development is characterised by stagnation or a slight decline. The demand for building land and the traffic increase are rated as being rather low. To push the economic development all communities have provided building sites for small and medium-sized businesses. There are also areas which have been defined as building land for private residential buildings.
The population density differs between the rural areas of the Hinterland and the congested areas along the Weser. The community of Ovelgönne has 46.6 inhabitants per km², Berne has 83.6 and Elsfleth reaches a number of 81.1; unlike Lemwerder with 197.9. With 423.8 inhabitants per km² the district town of Brake (Unterweser) shows a very different pattern.

4.1 Land use
The region of Stedingen consists of river marshes, slightly raised river banks and the Sietland. The most prominent kind of landscape therefore is the marsh, which is protected from floods by dykes along the Weser banks. The river Hunte runs right through Stedingen and joins the Weser near Elsfleth. At the junction the Huntesperrwerk (Hunte barrage) is sited as a protection against high tides. In the west of Stedingen the Geest begins. At the road B 211 in Loyermoor there is the so called “Geest-Abbruch” (Geest drop), with a height difference of 30 meters.
The land use in the communities of Berne, Lemwerder and Ovelgönne is characterised by a high proportion of grassland. Therefore agriculture, mainly pasture, and the associated industries represent the principal economic emphasis of the area. In the community of Elsfleth the fertile sandy clayey soils of the marsh are also used mainly as grassland. The river marsh area and the former peatbogs are only sparsely wooded. With only 0.7 % of woodland the district of Wesermarsch, is almost completely free of woods. The peat marshes and former peatbog areas of the hinterland show a grassland use of 84 %, tillage on the other hand is, at 3 %, almost non-existent. There are about 130 farms with sizes of 30- 50 ha. in the community. Considering the intensive agricultural use of the land it can be assumed that the process of increasing farm sizes is going to continue. Currently the percentage of people employed in agriculture lies below 8 %, dropping to 2 % in the community of Lemwerder, and could decline even further. This development has to be seen in the context of the agricultural intensification which is responding to international pressures. The old landscape and settlement structures on the Stedinger Marsch might still be visible but radical changes are looming.
Tourism is an economic factor for the communities of Stehdingen which should be encouraged in the future. For this reason historic agricultural structures and farm buildings as well as technological structures such as drainage ditches or typical views of places should preserved.

4.2 Settlement development
The dramatic drop in employment in the dockyards and in aircraft construction, e.g. in Elsfleth, is causing gradual changes. From being an industrial community, Elsfleth is becoming a residential area within the commuter belt of the High Order Centre of Bremen.

The commuting structures of the communities of Stedingen are quite versatile, depending on the location of the respective business sites. While Lemwerder is well balanced the communities of Berne and Elsfleth have almost double as many commuters going out than coming in. Ovelgönne even reaches a ratio of three times as many commuters going out. Only Brake has more commuters coming in for work. The commuting indicates the bad employment situation which can be attributed to the regressive economy of the dockyards and aircraft industry. In the long run the southern parts of the district are in danger of turning into mere residential and dormitory areas. This might cause a loss of identity, based on the loss of economic traditions, and an uncontrolled settlement of the landscape.
There is no national museum in Stedingen. Brake has the Shipping Museum of the Weser Ports of Oldenburg, which lies by the water, it was opened in 1960. The extensive collection relates to the local shipping history of the region. In Ovelgönne the North German Crafts Museum opened in 1981. It gives an insight into the trade and crafts of the Wesermarsch in the 19th century by reconstructing old workshops. A small regional museum in Berne presents the history of the region. Special places of interest in the community of Lemwerder include churches like those in Bardewisch or in Altenesch with its Münstermann pulpit. The monument “Stedingsehre“, which was erected in 1834 by the Ochtum dyke, is a reminder of the battle of 1234. An important church building is the St.-Aegidius church in Berne, with its three-aisled gothic hall church, and the altar and the pulpit from the workshops of Ludwig Münstermann.
Recurring large-scale events of great tourist interest are the horse fair in Ovelgönner and the Kajenfest (quay festival) in Brake.
Stedingen is part of the cycle path “Deutsche Sielroute“ in the district of Wesermarsch which comprises more than 200 km of cycle paths. A special feature is the Juliusplate on the Weser shore near Berne.

The tourist trade could be improved by using the beauty of the scenery, the historic settlement structure and the high recreational value of communities of Stedingen as a impetus. In addition to bicycle tourism, camper-van tourism is being encouraged. In Lemwerder a camper-van park was built and further sites were established at the Weser and the Ochtum. Elsfleth also has to offer a pleasure-craft port and landing sites. It remains to be seen in what way the plans of the community of Ovelgönne (town rehabilitation plans, planning of business parks and building land allocation, the planned expansion of Oldenbrok-Mittelort as residential area and the creation of a real village centre in the typical linear settlement) will affect the overall picture of the landscape.

4.3 Industry and energy
The district town of Brake with its 16.000 inhabitants is one of the industrial and administrative centres of the district of Wesermarsch. The industry is dominated by the port of Brake which is the second largest port of Lower Saxony. More than 12% of the people working in Brake work at the harbour industries. Besides the harbour services businesses some other large companies profit by the proximity of the Weser. A fat refinery, the North German Natural Gas Processing Association and companies like Siemens and Rehau run plants in Brake. The port serves as reloading point for the traditional bulk goods like grain, fodder, sulphur and for bulk cargo like paper and steel. The container harbour is also of great importance. The industry of Elsfleht is linked to the fluctuating significance of the harbour. The Elsflether Werft AG once used to be the largest dockyard around Oldenburg. Today there is a single shipbuilding company, one brandy distillery, one packaging industrial plant, one signboard factory and a few shipping companies which, apart from a number of smaller trade businesses and manufacturers, dominate the economy of the region. In Lemwerder there is a maintenance centre for large aircrafts as well as an airfield runway. There are also two shipyards for the construction of special ships. The subsidiary company of one of the shipyards specialises in the construction of rotor blades for wind turbines. In the community of Berne there is no industry worth mentioning. Dairy production is the main economic feature of Ovelgönne. The main employer is the company Nordmilch, formerly Botterbloom Milch e.g. in Strückhausen, community of Ovelgönne, with c. 500 employees.

Numerous wind turbines, single plants as well as wind parks, characterise the landscape of the southern district of Wesermarsch. The community of Ovelgönne is particularly affected by this with four wind parks near Ovelgönne and five more in the Oldenbroker field. They certainly don’t contribute to the beauty of the landscape of the community.

4.4 Infrastructure
In the east Stehdingen is linked to the motorway network with the A 26 Oldenburg-Delmenhorst and in the west with the A 29, towards Wilhelmshaven. Near Kleinensiel, in the community of Stadland, the Weser tunnel leads to the right side of the Weser and to the junction of the A 27 Cuxhaven-Bremen. The main traffic way in the Stedingerland is the federal road 212 which runs from north to south: it starts off at Nordenham and leads to the community border of Lemwerder in the south. The federal road 211 from Brake leads to the High Order Centre of Oldenburg. In Berne the federal road 74, comes from the area east of the Weser, meets the 212. Other than that, the country roads provide a network between the settlements of Stedingen. Only Brake can claim quite a good infrastructure, due to the location right in the middle between the towns of Bremen, Bremerhaven, Oldenburg and Wilhelmshaven. The construction of the Weser tunnel improved the connection to the motorway 27 on the other side of the Weser. At present there is the construction of a new federal road 211 planned which would improve the connection of the community of Ovelgönne with the harbour of Brake.
The railroad traffic through Stedingen, and the district of Wesermarsch, has to be called meagre, especially after the shutting down of many lines during the last decades. The only railroad line in public transport still serviced on a regular basis is that of Hude – Berne – Elsfleth – Brake – Nordenham.

The location of Stedingen by the navigable Weser, which is deep enough for ocean-going vessels, provides the region with a favourable infrastructure. In Brake, Elsfleth and Lemwerder there are harbours which are connected with the railroad network. Elsfleth, e.g., is linked by the waterways of the Hunte and the coastal channel respectively the Weser and the Mittellandkanal with the agglomeration areas of Nordrhein-Westfalen. Apart from the Weser tunnel there are also ferries: from Lemwerder to Bremen-Vegesack, from Motzen to Bremen-Blumenthal and from Berne to Bremen-Farge. The ferry from Brake to Harriersand only transports pedestrians and bicycles.

5. Legal and spatial planning aspects

From a geological-geographic point of view the Stedinger Land can be divided into two parts: First, the strip along the Weser with the main settlements and industrial sites of Lemwerder, Elsfleth, Brake and Berne. In the regional planning program of 1969 the area is addressed as being the main focus area. Secondly, the regions to the west and south with Ovelgönne and the areas of peat soils which border the interior Geest. They are seen as especially poorly structured areas.
In respect to spatial planning the Stedinger communities are subject to the regional planning program, issued by the federal state of Lower Saxony, respectively to the landscape framework plans and land use plans of the communities. Then there is also the regional development concept of Bremen in cross-county cooperation. The plans of the community should help preserve the historically grown structure of the Stedinger Land and stem the excesses in settlement and agriculture.
For the period of 2000 to 2006 the district of Wesermarsch belonged to the aim-2-area of Lower Saxony of the EU structural politics. Currently suggestions for the promotion of rural areas for the period between 2007 and 2013 are under discussion. According to this next to agriculture, other sources of income like tourism, crafts and trade should become further supporting elements of the economy of the rural area. The district Wesermarsch has already presented its own concept for the development and preservation of its cultural landscape in 2001. It suggested the promotion and realisation of smaller projects in the fields of tourism, regional products, nature and culture. Since 2004 the Wesermarsch is one of the partners in the trans-national project of “Monitoring of the Structural Changes in the Rural Areas of the North Sea Coast“. It deals with questions like traffic and transport, ecological development and social aspects.
The landscape of Oldenburg is responsible for the advancement of cultural and historic interests in Stedingen.

6. Vulnerabilities

6.1 Strategic planning
The possible large-scale establishment of industrial and business parks to enhance the economic situation could have serious effects on the traditionally grown structures. The planned housing estate extension of villages or new routings with bypasses, as planned for Oldenbrok-Mittelort, with the federal road 211, will damage the typical impression of the linear villages.

6.2 Agriculture
The international competition and the pressure on agriculture caused by globalisation might result in an adjustment of the agricultural methods of production to inherent economic necessities. An enlargement of the farm areas and a simultaneous decrease in the number of farmsteads – the so-called farm dying – is the necessary consequence as can already be seen in some communities.

6.3 Tourism
The pressure of modern mass tourism could lead to the redundancy of authentic historic structures although the promotion of tourism is becoming a necessity.

6.4 Industry and energy
The many wind parks which have been constructed impact heavily on the visual cultural heritage of the landscape. The reduction in local employment and increase in commuting may cause a loss of identity, based on the loss of economic traditions, an uncontrolled settlement of the landscape and a loss of traditional structures.

7. Potentials

7.1 Settlement
Despite of modern influence the cultural landscape of Stedingen has so far managed to preserve its unique character. Dominating features are the wide marsh and former moor areas in which the settlements stand out clearly and thus, together with the dykes and dwelling mounds, give a distinctive face to the landscape. Linear settlements developed along roads and dykes while long-narrow field strips are characteristic features of the Hinterland. The marine towns and villages, which are dominated by the shipping industry, are distinguishing features of the landscape and settlement structures along the Weser. The preservation of this settlement and landscape has great potential both for retaining the regions culture and for the promotion of tourism.

7.2 Agriculture
The exploitation of the historic agricultural production methods and landscape can be used to promote tourism into the region. As has been suggested the promotion and realisation of smaller projects in the fields of tourism, regional products, nature and culture will improve the image and economy of the area.

7.3 Tourism
The tourist trade could be improved by using the beauty of the scenery, the historic settlement structure and the high recreational value of communities of Stedingen as an impetus. In addition to bicycle tourism, camper-van tourism is being encouraged.

8. Sources

Author: Frank Both

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Hannemann, M. (1954): Der Landkreis Wesermarsch. Die Landkreise in Niedersachsen Reihe D, Bd. 10. Bremen-Horn 1954.

Krämer, R., Fansa, M. (1991): Bodenfunde aus der Wesermarsch. Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland, Beiheft 5. Oldenburg 1991.

KomSIS: Kommunales Standort Informationssystem Niedersachsen.

Meiners, G. (1987): „Stedingen und die Stedinger“. Bremen 1987.

Pätzold, J. (1955): Eine Siedlung der Großsteingrableute unter Normalnull bei Oldenburg (Oldb.). Oldenburger Jahrbuch 55, Teil II, 1955, 83-97.

Pieper, P. (1989): Die Weserrunenknochen. Neue Untersuchungen zur Problematik: Original oder Fälschung. Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland, Beiheft 2. Oldenburg 1989.

Raumordungskonzept für das niedersächsische Küstenmeer. Herausgegeben vom Niedersächsisches Ministerium für den ländlichen Raum, Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz - Regierungsvertretung Oldenburg - Landesentwicklung, Raumordnung. Stand 2005.

Runge, W. (1983): Kirchen im Oldenburger Land, Bd. I. Oldenburg 1983.

Schneider, J. (2001): Mittelalterliche Siedler auf dem Rand des Hochmoores. Archäologie in Niedersachsen 4, 2001, 97-99.

Seedorf, H.H., Meyer, H.H. (1992): Landeskunde Niedersachsen, Bd. I, Historische Grundlagen und naturräumliche Ausstattung. Neumünster 1992.

Seedorf, H.H., Meyer, H.H. (1996): Landeskunde Niedersachsen, Bd. II, Niedersachsen als Wirtschafts- und Kulturraum. Neumünster 1996.

Steinmetz, W.-D. (1989): Archäologische Untersuchungen zur Siedlungsgeschichte der Oldenburgischen Moorrandreihensiedlungen. Probleme der Küstenforschung im südlichen Nordseegebiet 17, 1989, 125-165.

Woebcken, C. (1933): Die Schlacht bei Altenesch am 27. Mai 1234 und ihre Vorgeschichte. Oldenburger Jahrbuch 37, 1933, 5-35.