Cultural Entities 


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1. Overview




River Weser, Außenweser, Jadebusen, neighbouring entity Stadland


Approx. 216 km²

Location - map:

Coastal Marsh of Lower Saxony, Germany

Origin of name:

‘Outside of the Jade’, it was an island in the Middle Ages

Relationship/similarities with other cultural entities:

Grassland marshes like Krummhörn and Norderland; Dwelling mound villages like Krummhörn, Norderland and Wangerland/Jeverland; Kübbungshaus (timber-frame house) like the ones in the region of Friesischen Wehde, Osterstadt and Land Wursten; Jedutenhügel like in Stadland

Characteristic elements and ensembles:

Grassland marshes, dwelling mound villages, Kübbungshaus (timber-frame houses), Jedutenhügel mound

2. Geology and geography

2.1 General
Butjadingen is a peninsula in the very north of the rural district of Wesermarsch. The natural boundaries are formed in the north by the Außenweser, in the west and south-west by the Außenjade and in the east and north-east by the River Weser. The southern part of Butjadingen adjoins Stadland, at Eckwarderhörne - Norderham. Today the cultural landscape of Butjadingen comprises the community Butjadingen and large parts of the town of Nordenham.
The natural environment beside the river Weser is formed by brackish marshes, beside the Jade and along the estuary of the river Weser there are sea marshes. Inland Butjadingen has areas with brackish and sea marshes in different depths and states of development, which reflect its complex natural history. Two barrier beaches developed in the western area of Butjadingen, arching parallel to the coast-line. These were built by succesive phases of sedimentation. The Weser-Uferwall (barrier beach) at the west bank of the Weser lies in a north-south direction.

Contemporary landscape nearby Langwarden © Fuchs, NLD Winterlandscape nearby Langwarden © Fuchs, NLD

2.2 Present landscape
Characteristic of this specific region are the large expanses of grassland-marshes and roads bordered by trees. This area is distinguished by its lack of forests. Therefore the farms on the dwelling mounds with their surrounding woods can be clearly identified. The only elevations are represented by dikes, street dams, dwelling mounds and other buildings. Particularly typical are the Langwurten (dwelling mounds in a linear shape) on top of the former barrier beaches, whose arched parallel alignment to the coast line they echo. The coast is dominated by the sea dike. An increase of agricultural land use can be observed in the area. Important water features include the Butjadinger Entwässerungskanal (drainage), the Butjadinger Kanal (canal) and the Eckwarder Sieltief (sluice). Nordenham is an industrial town with a harbour, corresponding infrastructure and distinctive buildings.

Farm estate on a dwelling mound nearby Langwarden © Fuchs, NLD

Landscape nearby Langwarden © Fuchs, NLD

3. Landscape and settlement history 

3.1 Prehistoric and Medieval Times

The date of the oldest settlement in Butjadingen has not yet been established by archaeological means. On the basis of comparison with neighbouring areas the first settlements should belong to the Neolithic period. It is probable that the finds for this period mostly lie underneath a thick layer of alluvial sediments and will only be found by systematic investigation or a deep dig. The oldest finds of the rural district of Wesermarsch date from the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods. Dredging-machines have found antler and stone axes in the Weser between Brake and Elsfleth.

A large number of ground-level settlements have been found on the barrier beaches in Butjadingen dating from the 1st century BC. Since the 1st century AD the rising sea levels have led to the building of dwelling mounds. In the 2nd century AD the settlements on the inner barrier beach were abandoned, because a new barrier beach had developed some 2.5km seawards. This brought economic deterioration to the mainland, because the water could not drain from the land-surface. Many further settlements were abandoned in the 5th century for reasons that are not yet clear. However the large linear dwellings mounds with their villages demonstrate that Butjadingen is an ideal location for answering some of these questions.
Butjadingen was colonized again in the 7th/8th centuries by settlers from the Frisian area of the Netherlands. These new settlements were built both on the earlier settlement sites as well as in the new areas which had developed on the seawards side of the entity. In late medieval times these outer settlements were lost to the great flood-tides and can now only be located by studying historic sources or by archaeological research in the mudflats.

In Niens, a dwelling mound from the 7th to the 12th century was excavated. The results show that, as in the preceding periods, the domestication of animals, with some tillage formed the economic basis of the area.
The rising sea levels and the increasing floods led in the 11th century to the erection of the oldest dikes. The first dikes were ring-dikes surrounding the settlements and the agrarian land for protection. The only scientifically dated ring dike was found near the village of the dwelling mound Sillens. It is important evidence for the early construction of dikes. In the following periods a complete line of dikes was constructed, which meant better protection from floods and led to an expansion of agrarian land as well as to a surplus in agricultural production. This put the rural upper classes into a position of adopting industrial activities to extend their social and economic position. As a consequence Langwarden developed into a central trading place in the early 12th century. This village is a typical early medieval craft and trading place built as a linear dwelling mound (Langwurtendorf).
The modern peninsula of Butjadingen was formed in medieval times by a range of great flood tides, which created the coast line. After the second Marcellus flood of 1362 AD, Butjadingen became temporarily an island, which gave this region its name. Marine sediments can be found inland in the area of the Ahne-Lockfleh-Durchbruch (sea dike cutting).

The Frisian Butjadingen was a free “farmers republic” (Bauernrepublik) until medieval times, and this has had an important effect on its modern identity. After a number of battles with high casualties (“Lever dod as sklav”) they were conquered, first by East Frisians (Ostfriesen), then they belonged to Bremen and finally to Oldenburg. In medieval times the political constitution was characterized by egalitarian Frisian freedom (“Friesische Freiheit”), which ended in the middle of the 14th century, when the Frisian chiefs took over the political power. Because of disagreements amongst the Frisian chiefs, as well as conflict with the Archbishop of Bremen and the Earl of Oldenburg, Butjadingen found itself in a state of continuous conflict. Between 1514 and 1523 the region lost its independence and belonged to Oldenburg.

The complex history of the region is reflected in the architecture of the churches. The churches of Langenwarden, Tossens, Eckwarden, Abbehausen and Blexen have a clear defensive character. The church of St. Hyppolyt in Blexen is the oldest one of this region and possesses a baroque altar made by Ludwig Münstermann. The missionary of the Frisians, Willehad died on the 8th November 789 here. The signification of Langwarden as an important trading place is demonstrated by a second church St. Laurentius, which was erected by local traders. It is build of tuff-stones from the Rhineland.
A monument type peculiar to Butjadingen and the Stadland is the “Jedutenhügel”. These are mounds of earth with a height of 5 m and 30 m in diameter. They could have been landmarks or even places for executions. One of these mounds can be seen near Volkers or Grebswarden.

3.2 Early Modern Times
Modern Butjadingen belonged in medieval times to the Frisian province of Rüstringen, which lost its territorial completeness during disastrous floods. Because of the formation of the Jadebusen, the western area of Rüstringen was separated from the eastern area, which were renamed Bovenjadingen and Butenjadingen. In the Lower German language Bovenjadingen means “on this side of the Jade” and Butenjadingen “outside of the Jade”. Butjadingen had become an island because of the Heete-Durchbruch (Heete cut). At the beginning of the 16th century the lost area was impoldered again, so Butjadingen was connected with Stadland, and once again became part of the mainland.
During this period Butjadingen suffered from many of the great floods. Numerous places and villages were destroyed by the water (Tedlens, Langemehne, Bär, Alt-Waddens, Aldessen or Oldersum). In 1687 Butjadingen belonged to the Danish government who allowed the dikes and their maintenance to become neglected. One of the most disastrous flood-tides came in 1717 around Christmas. Almost one third of the population died and the region suffered for a long period from the negative effects on the economy.

3.3 Modern Times
The development of the infrastructure demonstrates the economical development of the region. No roads are shown in Butjadingen on the road maps of 1812. Around 1863 the first road connection from Brake to Burhaven over Stollhamm is registered. A road map of around 1893 depicts roads in Butjadingen and Nordenham, these are still important (the L 858, L 860, B 212).
The first railway opened in 1875 from Brake to Nordenham, and was extended to the north in the direction of Blexen in 1905. The Butjadinger Railway, which runs through the northern part of the Wesermarsch, can still be visited today. Parts of the embankment, between Nordenham and Stollhamm are now in use as a bicycle trail. It is part of the wide range of the tourist facilities in Butjadingen. In many villages in this region the old railway station buildings survive and are sometimes used as pubs or restaurants.
The city of Nordenham developed from the community of Atens after the mid-19th century. The tradesman Wilhelm Müller had built a pier, the “ox-pier” (Ochsenpier), where cattle were transported to England via the Norddeutsche Lloyd (North-German Lloyd). The first industrial enterprise settled in Nordenham in 1899 producing sea cables (Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke AG). It was followed by the Frerichs-Dockyard in 1905 in a district of Nordenham called Einswarden. At that time the district belonged to the community of Blexen, which merged with Nordenham in 1933. In 1908 the metal industry of Unterweser AG started its production of NE-metals (nonferrous metals). It had been founded here so as to use the ore ballast from the ships coming from overseas to the lower Weser.

A logical consequence of the metallurgical work was the foundation of a factory for artificial manure Superphosphatfabrik (1906–1908). Here sulphuric acid derived from the metallurgical processes could be processed. It was closed down in 1988 because of a drastic crisis in the artificial manure industry.

The First World War put an end to the industrialization of this region. Because of the economic crisis the Frerichs-Dockyard had to close in 1935. Branches of the aircraft construction company Weser-Flugzeugbau GmbH from Bremen moved to the two dockyards Frerichs-Werft and Oldenburger Werft in 1935/36. Aircraft belonging to the Donier Junkers, Arado and Henkel companies were repaired here.

In 1956 the Einswarder Company “Weser-Flugzeugbau GmbH” was opened for the out-fitting of helicopters. After some re-organisation the company is now known world wide as “European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company N. V. (EADS). The centre of the EADS-family for fitting stressed-skin fuselage is in Nordenham. Of great importance had been the establishing of a branch of the titan producing company “Leverkusen” on the Blexer Groden opposite to Bremerhaven in 1969. The “Kronos Titan GmbH” produces the white pigment Titan-Dioxid in Nordenham and employees around 430 people.

 Historic landscape with drainage ditch and dwelling mounds nearby Eckwarden. © Fuchs, NLD

Historic landscape with drainage ditch and dwelling mounds nearby Langwarden. © Fuchs, NLD

The predominant rural settlement of the 19th century in most parts of Butjadingen was the villages with houses in a line (Reihensiedlungen), in contrast only a few single dwelling mounds are mentioned. Along the river Weser were mostly closed clustered villages (Hufendörfer). The most common rural house-type is the timber framed, two column constructions known as the Zweiständerhaus or Kübbungshaus.
Individual tourist developments have taken place in some seaside resorts, as at Tossens and Burhave.

4. Modern development and planning

The Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning mentioned Butjadingen in their report 2005 as a region where the employment rate as well as local development is slowly sinking.

4.1 Land use
The agrarian areas have a high potential of natural out-put, because of their geomorphologic history. The heavy soil, particularly in the marsh, support a typical grassland economy. Arable fields are scarce, though the proportion is slowly rising. In the year 2001 16.000 ha. were in arable use, of which 15.000 ha. had previously been grassland. Agriculture plays an important part in the preservation of the historic landscape and the suitability of the entity as a recreation area (RROP 2003). Wide areas are assigned for use as or developed as grassland. Changes to this practise would need to be considered most carefully, for the regional planning should guarantee an open landscape.

Meanwhile major work has been undertaken to strengthen the sea-dikes in order to counteract rising sea levels. Extensive removal of tidal mud deposits has taken place. This work has to be compensated elsewhere, which helps to preserve the originality of this region. In the planning permission hearings (Planfeststellungsverfahren) for the extension of the dikes, the preservation of ancient monuments will be taken into consideration. The office for the conservation of ancient monuments will be involved in the planning and realization of the compensation projects. The extension of the Jade-Weser-Port, which lies in Wangerland, has also made some compensation necessary. One of these projects will be the demolishing of a summer-dike near Eckwarden. Today compensation measures for nature protection are an important element of landscape planning as well as for the income of the local farmers in this low structured region.
Another economic factor, but of a lower degree, is shrimp fishing in the coastal area.
Of special importance for Butjadingen is its position close to the national park Niedersächsisches Wattenmeer. This biological reserve is protected for migrant and breeding birds according to the European references for plants and animals (Natura 2000). Behind the dikes, birds find extended areas for resting as well as special refuges for all kinds of different species.

4.2 Settlement development
The history of the development of the settlement can be demonstrated by a simple statistic. In the community of Butjadingen there had been an increase of building areas from 303 ha. to 553 ha. within the years 1979 to 2005. The majority was for dwelling-houses. In Nordenham this development had not been so drastic. In the same period there had been an increase from 837 ha. to 1.195 ha., here the majority was used for industrial areas. In Butjadingen a special increase can be recognized for recreation areas (2005: 64 ha., includes 28 ha. green land). In Nordenham there are 142 ha. for recreation, including 115 ha green land.
The community of Butjadingen proceeds with the idea of an individual development of the population according to the Cooperative Concept for Settlement and Free Space (2004), which is affected by its neighbourhood to Nordenham. In the long terms there will be a stagnation in population growth. A special problem will be the obsolescence of the society. With regards to the planning of settlement development, there are sufficient building plots within the community itself as well as in the smaller districts. The community is poorly connected with the public transport system, and this is expected to grow worse after the Weser-Tunnel had been finished.

Historic landscape with drainage ditches and dwelling mound nearby Langwarden © Fuchs, NLD

The town of Nordenham has recognized according to the Cooperative Concept for Settlement and Free Space (2004), that there is a dependence between the development of the employment rate and the inquiries for lodgings, whilst there is no dependence between the employment rate and the inquiries for building land. There is some industry in Nordenham with local omportance with a constant number of employees (Kronos-Titan, Metalleurop). There is also some industry close related to the conjuncture (Seekabelwerke, Airbus). From the view of Nordenham there is only a slight involvement with its surrounding communities (commuters). The town can not satisfy the inquiries for building land (140 applicants on the waiting list). Also there are increasing inquiries for single family-houses (or high-class freehold flats), while the inquiries for lodging in apartment houses are sinking. In consequence this will possibly mean an increase of empty flats.
The significance of tourism in Butjadingen is recommended in the Regional Program for Rural Planning of the rural district “Wesermarsch”. Here they recommend several providence and priority areas. In the following schedule they are summarized with its special aims for recreation and tourism of each location or district according to the Regional Program for Rural Planning.

  Municipality Location/District
Special development task “recreation” Community Butjadingen Eckwarderhörne
Special development task “tourism” Community Butjadingen Burhave, Ruhwarden, Tossens
Recreation area of regional importance Town of Nordenham Abbehausen
Community Butjadingen Tossens, Fedderwardersiel
Marina Town of Nordenham Großensiel
Recreation grounds of regional importance Town of Nordenham Town centre(Centre of sports)
Blexer Groden (glider airport)
Community Butjadingen Fedderwardersiel (Water sports)

Lit.: RROP Rural District Wesermarsch 2003

Following districts and settlement areas are also in the areas of special providence and priority for recreation:

  Municipality Districts and Settlement areas
Areas with high priority for peaceful recreation Community Butjadingen along the coastline at the inner dike
Areas with high priority for intensive claim by the population Town of Nordenham Großensiel/Nordenham
Community Butjadingen Eckwarderhörne, Tossens, Fedderwardersiel, Burhave
Areas of providence for recreation Town of Nordenham Western margin
Community Butjadingen From Waddens in the direction of Schneewarden, large areas of the western part of the community

Lit.: RROP Rural District Wesermarsch 2003

Tourism is an important part of the economy of the community of Butjadingen. Beside institutions and activities like yachting, surfing, camping, visiting health resorts and CenterParc, there are international events like the “Sand-Art-Festival” at Tossens.

The landscape and natural history of the region are of particular importance. The adjoining national park Niedersächsisches Wattenmeer, bird-watching and other areas offer a wide range of possibilities for nature tourism.
There is no university in either Nordenham or Butjadingen; is Elsfleth in the rural district of Wesermarsch there is a college for navigation, the Oldenburg/Ostfriesland/Wilhelmshaven. The community of Butjadingen and the town of Nordenham each have one school up to the 6th Form.
The regional museum of northern Wesermarsch in Nordenham displays the history of Frisian culture and the local history of the town and industry. The collection contains the famous picture of the “fraternal kiss” from H. Zieger (1910), depicting the decapitation of the sons of the Frisian chief, Didde and Gerold Lübben (around 1418). The last fully operating windmill of the Wesermarsch stands on the historic mill place in Moorsee. It is the centre of a specialised museum for the history of mills and milling. The substructure of the three storey high Gallerieholländer (a special type of windmill from Netherlands) with two wind roses was built in 1840. After a fire in 1904, the upper structure was restored in its present form. In the former granary the exhibition now shows some typical rural utensils, coaches and carriages. The mill contains an example of the working place of the miller, who erected the mill 90 years ago in Moorsee. The national park-house-museum in Butjadingen is in the fishery harbour in Fedderwardersiel, and has an extensive amount of information about the national park “Niedersächsisches Wattenmeer”, the settlement history of Butjadingen, fishing, coastal protection and many more. There is also a Historical Trading House Abbehausen, which contains about 3.000 articles from the daily life, ranging from wooden storm-clothes-pegs to sweets.

4.3 Industry and energy
A long-distance line of 110 kv crosses Butjadingen from east to west, and a second long-distance line of 220 kv passes west of Nordenham. Altogether there are four wind parks with the highest density of wind energy plants. Additional single power stations have also been installed. The waste deposal site close to Tettens is clearly visible from a very far distance, as well as the buildings already described previously.

4.4 Infrastructure
The area was traditionally connected by water, like the river Weser, divided into the outer Weser or the Jadebusen. In modern times the Weser, as a federal waterway, is an important channel of supply for the industry requiring the port in Nordenham.
Ferries cross the Weser. The car-ferry Nordenham–Bremerhaven runs the whole year round, the ferry Eckwarden–Wilhelmshaven is only seasonal and primarily for tourists. The tunnel underneath the Weser guarantees a constant connection with Bremen and Bremerhaven. The planned motorway A-22 will include the tunnel and runs south of Nordenham. It is thought that the motorway A-22 will bring a greater connections to Butjadingen as the traffic will cross the region in an east–west direction.
In 1893 the road system already included the most important roads in Butjadingen and Nordenham (L 858, L 860, B 212). These following the natural conditions and connect most localities. There are no direct train connection with bigger towns and cities, the ext possible transfer is in Hude (on the line between Oldenburg und Bremen). The freight traffic which comes from the industries is dependent on the harbour and the roads, as well as the train.

5. Legal and spatial planning aspects

According to the Cooperative Concept for Settlement and Free Space of the municipal working group “Wesermündung” (Bremen–Niedersachsen) 2004, expert evidence was produced with regards to the possibilities for the development of the whole region. It was the first trial to harmonize the needs of lodging, industry, tourism and free space within one concept in consideration of the tight connection to Bremerhaven. It is apparent that planning for the rural development of the city of Bremerhaven and its communities should always involve the close relation to the lower Saxonian surrounding area. Therefore the community of Butjadingen and the town Nordenham will be counted in this concept to the 2. Ring.
The community of Butjadingen and the town of Nordenham are part of the rural district of Wesermarsch. Burhave has the function of a basic centre while Nordenham is a middle-centre. In case of the regional planning Butjadingen and Nordenham are integrated in the following hierarchy: the lower Saxonian spatial planning (Landes-Raumordnung), the regional land use regulation program of the rural district “Wesermarsch”2003 (Regionalen Raumordnungsprogramm) and the land structure plans (Flächennutzungspläne) of the local communities and their possible modifications.
In addition, the Concept of Rural Development of the Lower Saxonian Costal Sea is an important factor. Specific plans about nature and the landscape are based on the landscape framework plan (Landschaftsrahmenplan) for the rural district of 1992. The superior instance is a regional authority the so called “United Landscapes” (Landschaftsverband) “Oldenburgische Landschaft”.

6. Vulnerabilities

6.1 Spatial planning
The effects of the new coastal motorway and the development of the harbour of Nordenham are, in context with the extension of the “Jade-Weser-Port” in Wilhelmshaven and the Container port in Bremerhaven, difficult to define, however they will impact on the cultural heritage of the area.

6.2 Agriculture
It is not clear whether the combination of intensive farming methods and the benefits from the compensation measures will ensure the survival of the agricultural economy. In the near future either wide areas must be laid fallow or under the control of the natural preservation order or there has to be more intensive farming production. The increase in arable production will make archaeological deposits vulnerable to ploughing. The “dieing” of farmsteads will endanger the historical building substances on the dwelling mound.

6.3 Tourism
The expansion of tourism offers can mean that the natural landscape is vulnerable. This includes the building of holiday resorts, increase in traffic and inappropriate development within the historic settlements.

6.4 Industry and energy
The extension of wind energy as a regenerating energy source has some priority in Germany. The erecting of wind energy stations can dominate the whole landscape, like for example in Krummhörn. Due to its coastal area and the huge amount of wind Butjadingen is a very attractive place for wind energy. The redevelopment of older installations will be a problem (heights now: 80 – 100 m, then: 140 m) and will cause further visual impact. In Nordenham the effect of industry and the railway has created a barrier between the town and the water losing part of the town’s historic identity. The dominant industry and its changing use have led to air pollution, which is a handicap for a status as a recreation area. This also has an impact on the historic structures and the appeal of the area.

7. Potentials

7.1 Settlement
In Butjadingen mostly the typical forms of settlements and land using, which are adopted by the life of the coastal marshes, have been preserved. Sometimes farmsteads and settlements are lying on prominent dwelling mounds. This region has a relatively high density of ancient and historic monuments. This preserved landscape and long settlement history is ideal for promoting the cultural heritage of the area both to the local people as well as the tourist industry.

7.2 Agriculture
The exploitation of the historic agricultural production methods and landscape can be used to promote tourism into the region. The changes to the agricultural economy may be seen as a potential if carefully managed. The creation of large areas of land under the Nature Preservation Order could provide the potential to manage and protect the cultural hertiage. This will require an integrated approach to the natural environment and cultural heritage.

7.3 Tourism
A main source for the promotion of the history of Butjadingen is the many museums, where the material culture of the region is displayed. All together Butjadingen offers many different sources for the understanding and promotion of the historical development of the marsh. An important supposition for the preservation of these structures is its use by private persons, farmers or tourists. It will be one of the biggest challenges to integrate these different interests and administrative memberships as well as the participation of the local population into this forming process. Butjadingen is in the position of a good working association system. Currently as well as in the past there have been some initiatives and some cooperation initiated by business, promotion and tourism:


Interreg IIC-Project: A String of Pearls along the North Sea
More then 300 smaller and middle sized businesses of the tourist industry or private individuals have been active in this project. Single “pearls” = local cooperations between participants, who developed their own plans and their own images, produced own advertising material. Information was exchanged on mutual international visits and seminars, new contacts and cooperation were found (project ended 2001).


LEADER +: The multifarious characteristics of the natural and cultural landscape “Wesermarsch” bears a potential of high quality for leisure and living, which is capable of development. Under the principle “Wesermarsh in motion” projects had been realized engaging regional participants, politics and administration with the financial help of the European promoting program LEADER + (2002 – 2006), developing the “Wesermarsch” in between the North Sea and the Weser enduring into an attractive region for recreation and for living.


Regional products: Because of the wide areas of grassland, the region “Wesermarsch” is a high valued environment for some rare birds. The consideration to promote agricultural products of this region together, ended up in a cooperation between farming, butchery and gastronomy. In November 2003 the association “proRegion Wesermarsch/Oldenburg e. V.” was founded.

Further tourism potential can be seen in:
- Bed and Box Offers
- North Sea Cycle Tour
- Weser Cycle Tour
- German Sluice Tour
- Multifarious horse riding and cycle paths

On the part of the districts the tight unity of tourism and landscape will be stressed in many ways. This creates a great potential for the preservation of this unique cultural landscape.

7.4 Nature conservation
There is potential for the cultural heritage to be incorporated within management plans in those areas either protected as nature reserves or proposed to become nature reserves.

8. Sources
Author: Jürgen Knies


Behre, K. E.: Die Veränderungen der niedersächsischen Küstenlinien in den letzten 3000 Jahren und ihre Ursachen. Probleme der Küstenforschung im südlichen Nordseegebiet 26, 1999, 9-33.

Behre, K. E.: Eine neue Meeresspiegelkurve für die südliche Nordsee Transgressionen und Regressionen in den letzten 10.000 Jahren. Probleme der Küstenforschung im südlichen Nordseegebiet 28, 2003, 9-63.

Ey, J.: Die Jedutenhügel bei Volkers, Grebswarden und Schmalenfleth. In: F. Both (Red.), Archäologische Denkmäler zwischen Weser und Ems. Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland, Beiheft 34. Oldenburg 2000, 450-452.

Ey, J.: Ergebnisse siedlungsarchäologischer Grabungen in der nördlichen Wesermarsch. In Bodenfunde aus der Wesermarsch. Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland, Beiheft 5. Oldenburg 1991, 79-86.

Först, E. (1991):Zur Besiedlungsgeschichte der Flussmarsch im Kreis Wesermarsch. Veröffentlichungen der urgeschichtlichen Sammlungen des Landesmuseums zu Hannover 37. Hildesheim 1991.

Gemeinde Butjadingen,, Stand 08.11.2006

Kooperatives Freiraum- und Siedlungskonzept für das Gebiet der Kommunalen Arbeitsgemeinschaft Wesermündung, 11/2004, gefördert durch die Regionale Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bremen – Niedersachsen

Krämer, R.: Die Bedeutung der archäologischen Denkmalpflege für die Kulturlandschaftsentwicklung der Wesermarsch. In Bodenfunde aus der Wesermarsch. Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland, Beiheft 5. Oldenburg 1991, 9–32.

Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Statistik: Auszüge aus der Agrarstrukturerhebung für Niedersachsen und der Katasterfläche in Niedersachsen,, Stand: 08.11.2006

Regionales Raumordnungsprogramm des Landkreises Wesermarsch, 2003

Schmid, P.: Butjadingen. In: F. Both (Red.), Archäologische Denkmäler zwischen Weser und Ems. Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland, Beiheft 34. Oldenburg 2000, 442–449.
Stadt Nordenham,, Stand 08.11.2006

Strahl, E. (2002): Erste Bauern in der deutschen Marsch – Die jungbronzezeitliche Siedlung Rodenkirchen-Hahnenknooper Mühle, Ldkr. Wesermarsch. Berichte zur Denkmalpflege in Niedersachsen 22, 79-82.

Strahl, E. (2004): Erste Bauern in der deutschen Marsch. Die jungbronzezeitliche Siedlung Rodenkirchen-Hahnenknooper Mühle, Ldk. Wesermarsch. In: M. Fansa, F. Both u. H. Haßmann (Hrsg.), Archäologie|Land|Niedersachsen. 25 Jahre Denkmalschutzgesetz – 400 000 Jahre Geschichte, 516-519. Stuttgart (Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland, Beiheft 42).